Canadian Journal of Microbiology. Corresponding author email: w.
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Abstract In a previous study it was shown that the number of wood-inhabiting bacteria was drastically reduced after colonization of beech Fagus sylvatica wood blocks by the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare , or sulfur tuft Folman et al. Determination of the total and leachable amounts of organohalogens in soil.
Estimation of fungal growth rates in soil using 14 C-acetate incorporation into ergosterol. Soil Biol. Hydroxyl radical activity associated with the growth of white-rot fungi. Baldrian P. Increase of laccase activity during interspecific interactions of white-rot fungi. FEMS Microbiol. Baldrian, P. Enzymes of saprotrophic basidiomycetes. In Ecology of saprotrophic basidiomycetes.
Edited by L. Boddy, J. Frankland, and P. Academic Press, Oxford, UK. Google Scholar.
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Barron GL. Microcolonies of bacteria as nutrient source for lignicolous and other fungi. Boddy L. Saprotrophic cord-forming fungi: meeting the challenge of heterogenous environments. Bourbonnais R, Paice MG. Oxidation of non-phenolic substrates. An expanded role for laccase in lignin biodegradation. FEBS Lett. Pyranose oxidase: a major source of H 2 O 2 during wood degradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium , Trametes versicolor , and Oudemansiellla mucida.
De Boer, W. Interactions between saprotrophic basidiomycetes and bacteria. Ammonium oxidation at low pH by a chemolithotrophic bacterium belonging to the genus Nitrosospira. Sulfur tuft and turkey tail: biosynthesis and biodegradation of organohalogens by Basidiomycetes. Significant biogenesis of chlorinated aromatics by fungi in natural environments. Evaluation of a simple, non-alkaline extraction protocol to quantify soil ergosterol. Thermal degradation products of wood. A collection of electron-impact EI mass spectra of monomeric lignin derived products.
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Impact of white-rot fungi on numbers and community composition of bacteria colonizing beech wood from forest soil. Bactericidal antibiotics and oxidative stress: a radical proposal. ACS Chem. Changes in volatile production during the course of fungal mycelial interactions between Hypholoma fasciculare and Resinicium bicolor. Oxalate-dependent reductive activity of manganese peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
Biodegradation of lignin by white rot fungi. Fungal Genet.
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Lorenzen K, Anke T. Matsutake is particularly valuable at an early stage of development and this requires careful searching in the upper humus layers of forests. Some collectors are not so careful: they rake the ground to uncover emerging fruit bodies, damaging the humus layer and affecting future harvests. Annual yields are still heavily influenced by available rainfall and ambient temperature at key times during the year.
There are widely differing rules and policies on the collection of wild edible fungi see also Box 8, Chapter 4. Scandinavia has open access: anyone can pick edible fungi as long as they do not harm property Saastamoinen, This policy has been challenged by economic migration from neighbouring countries, no longer part of the former Soviet Union, and the availability of cheap labour for collecting wild edible fungi and wild berries. Similar changes in eastern Europe have created new opportunities for commercial harvesting and led to concern about unsustainable harvests and how to regulate collections.
Controlling collectors is not always easy. Open access to the countryside is a tenet of life in Sweden and Norway and controlling the collection of wild edible fungi and other NWFP would require a fundamental change in national policies. The fear among forest managers and others is that future production of wild edible fungi will decrease. These are genuine concerns but there is a danger of taking draconian steps to regulate collectors without understanding the impact of harvesting, based on an incomplete knowledge of how much is collected and what collectors do.
The main impetus for regulating collectors is where commercial harvesting occurs.
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The introduction of regulatory schemes serves a number of different functions:. In Italy each province regulates who has the right to collect truffles Tuber spp. Collectors have to pass a simple test that confirms they are aware of how and where to harvest. In Winema National Park, Oregon, the sale of permits provides a substantial income, though this is highly variable Table 8. In Bhutan, only token amounts are earned from the sale of permits Namgyel, Local communities also administer permit schemes to limit access to valuable sites.
This is a reminder of the need to look closely at the fairness of schemes that unfairly exclude people rather than encourage equitable use of natural resources. Collectors in developing countries frequently collect for subsistence uses and the edible fungi represent an important food resource. In Malawi, forest officers are concerned that allowing people to collect wild edible fungi in protected forest areas will lead to greater extraction of wood products, particularly firewood Lowore and Boa, There is no officially registered commercial collecting in Malawi and there have been no attempts to introduce a permit system.
The success of regulation schemes depends on who controls or owns forests. It is a relatively straightforward matter to regulate collections of Boletus edulis in commercial pine plantations of South Africa compared to the more complex problems posed by multiple use of native forests in Malawi. The pressure to regulate access to sites comes from various sources, and not all involved in forestry.
A strong conservation lobby in the United States has sought to limit commercial harvests McLain, Christensen and Shannon, The expansion of commercial harvesting in Europe has resulted in the introduction of regulations in Poland Lawrynowicz, ; former Yugoslavia now Serbia and Montenegro Ivancevic, ; Zaklina, and Romania Pop, Information about the success of these schemes is sketchy and highlights the general difficulty of monitoring the conditions set by a permit.
They often state how much can be collected in a fixed time but it is difficult to check this and collect penalties for transgressions. Logging bans introduced in China Winkler, , the Philippines Novellino, , Canada Tedder, Mitchell and Farran, and elsewhere have opened up new opportunities for collecting wild edible fungi and prompted concern about overharvesting. In Siberia, the opposite effect has happened: an increase in logging activities by foreign companies has made it more difficult for local people to collect wild edible fungi de Beer and Zakharenkov, Successful control depends on modifying regulations that do not work and maintaining a good dialogue with collectors Pilz and Molina, ; see also Vance and Thomas, A pragmatic approach is needed to protect natural resources while allowing fair and equitable access to collectors.
Source : www. Only Winema publishes comprehensive accounts of the matsutake season the "mushroom chronicles".
A recent study in Malawi describes what happened when Mr Kenasi Affad went collecting bowa wild edible fungi near his home in Machinga. Kenasi is equipped with nothing but the clothes he is wearing and a bucket. He is barefoot with no protection from the rain, which today is persistent but not heavy. He cannot afford to let the rain put him off as bowa collection is a rainy season activity and he must be prepared to get wet.
This year the rains are still frequent and heavy which is good for the kunglokwetiti 6 and chipatwe. He sets off on a well trodden path towards the places he knows where he shall find bowa. He has observed the rain for the past day or two, he knows what species are ready at this time, he knows where he went last time and the condition of the crop when he was last there. He uses all this information to decide where to go. At this time of year the main species found and the one preferred by customers is kunglokwetiti. These are found in rocky places and Kenasi has to be sharp to spot them. They appear here and there underneath droopy tufts of grass.
To pick them Kenasi scoops the bowa from its base using his finger and gently lifts it from the earth. He then breaks the bottom part of the stem off and throws it away. He blows some of the remaining earth away and gently places the bowa in the bucket. He continues. Kenasi knows that certain bowa are found near certain tree species and that each year the same type of bowa appear in the same places.