In addition, many imaging physicists are often also involved with nuclear medicine systems, including single photon emission computed tomography SPECT and positron emission tomography PET.
Medical Physics Program
Sometimes, imaging physicists may be engaged in clinical areas, but for research and teaching purposes,  such as quantifying intravascular ultrasound as a possible method of imaging a particular vascular object. Radiation therapeutic physics is also known as radiotherapy physics or radiation oncology physics. The majority of medical physicists currently working in the US, Canada, and some western countries are of this group.
A radiation therapy physicist typically deals with linear accelerator Linac systems and kilovoltage x-ray treatment units on a daily basis, as well as other modalities such as TomoTherapy , gamma knife , cyberknife , proton therapy , and brachytherapy. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medicine that uses radiation to provide information about the functioning of a person's specific organs or to treat disease.
Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics | K. Bethge | Springer
The thyroid , bones , heart , liver and many other organs can be easily imaged, and disorders in their function revealed. In some cases radiation sources can be used to treat diseased organs, or tumours. Five Nobel laureates have been intimately involved with the use of radioactive tracers in medicine. Health physics is also known as radiation safety or radiation protection.
Health physics is the applied physics of radiation protection for health and health care purposes.
It is the science concerned with the recognition, evaluation, and control of health hazards to permit the safe use and application of ionizing radiation. Health physics professionals promote excellence in the science and practice of radiation protection and safety.
Some aspects of non-ionising radiation physics may be considered under radiation protection or diagnostic imaging physics. Imaging modalities include MRI , optical imaging and ultrasound. Safety considerations include these areas and lasers. Physiological measurements have also been used to monitor and measure various physiological parameters. Many physiological measurement techniques are non-invasive and can be used in conjunction with, or as an alternative to, other invasive methods.
Measurement methods include electrocardiography Many of these areas may be covered by other specialities, for example medical engineering or vascular science. Other closely related fields to medical physics include fields which deal with medical data, information technology and computer science for medicine.
Non-clinical physicists may or may not focus on the above areas from an academic and research point of view, but their scope of specialization may also encompass lasers and ultraviolet systems such as photodynamic therapy , fMRI and other methods for functional imaging as well as molecular imaging , electrical impedance tomography , diffuse optical imaging , optical coherence tomography , and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the discipline. For the journal, see Medical Physics journal. Kawrakow held several roles with the National Research Council of Canada: postdoctoral researcher from to , Research Officer from to , and Senior Research Officer from to The focus will be on RT with external photon beams in the context of i Offline treatment plan preparation, ii Online plan adaptation before treatment delivery, iii Real-time dose accumulation, and iv Real-time plan adaptation during treatment delivery. To satisfy the requirements of i and ii , a DCE must provide the ability to a Compute the dose of a treatment plan, b Compute the dose for each segment in a treatment plan and c Compute the dose from discretized fluence elements from the beams involved in the treatment plan on typically static representations of the patient anatomy.
To be able to accommodate iii and iv , the DCE must be also capable of performing a-c on time-dependent and rapidly changing patient anatomies, in addition to being able to quickly pause and resume simulations to allow for the execution of other computationally intensive tasks such as real-time tissue tracking, deformable image registration, dose accumulation, and treatment plan optimization.
She obtained a PhD in particle physics in , she has been qualified as medical physicist in Lydia Maigne has developed an expertise in the fields of e-science through the development of applications and services relevant to imaging and healthcare in grid and cloud environments. She became a member of the steering committee in and has been elected as the new spokesperson of the collaboration in She has been awarded twice in and , with the other collaboration members, for their two collaboration papers that have received the largest number of citations in the preceding five years in the Physics in Medicine and Biology journal.
She started her research career in validating Geant4 charged particle processes in external radiation therapy and brachytherapy. In and , she received two grants from the French Cancer Research National Program to improve dosimetry simulations associated to innovative radiopharmaceuticals in internal radiation therapy before studying the potentializing effect of gadolinium nanoparticles for particularly high resistant cancer cells.
To that purpose, she got involved with biologists, chemists and computer scientists into the developments of programs to tackle how energy depositions are allocated to biological endpoints cells, DNA when using clinical and low-energy radiation beams. In , she focused on the deployment and validation of biophysical models into the GATE platform for the simulation of the biological dose in ion beam therapy. As new spokesperson of the OpenGATE collaboration, she has made one of her priority to increase the organization of dedicated schools and workshops together with e-learning courses to improve the learning of medical physics through the GATE platform.
In order to propose computationally efficient simulations, researchers are proposing hardware acceleration solutions but also variance reduction techniques as hybrid modeling approaches combining either Monte Carlo and analytical simulations or using advanced machine learning processes such like artificial neural networks ANN or Generative Adversarial Networks GAN. We will illustrate some last advances in the field on Monte Carlo simulations for medical imaging and dosimetry applications with the GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform.
We will consider some developments related to theranostic approaches accounting for the simulation of dynamic processes and different resolution scales. We will show how the modelling of light transport in scintillation detectors plays an increasingly important role in detector design, we will illustrate how ANN can be used to model photon tracking in SPECT imaging or how GAN are used to replace phase space files usually produced to collect particles emerging from a voxelised patient geometry to simulate an imaging process. All presented methods are available in the open-source and collaborative GATE platform based on Geant4.
Born in in Manchester UK. He studied physics at Oxford University and received his PhD at Edinburgh University, on Monte Carlo methods applied to the chemical and ionometric dosimetry of megavoltage electron and photon beams. He retired in By replacing the true composition of various detectors by water of the same mass-density the MCM work by Scott et al revealed that detector-response variation with increasingly small field size in MV-irradiated water depended primarily on detector density. This led to MC-guided design of quasi-perturbation-free composite-wall small-field detectors Underwood et al The constancy of the MCM-derived electron-fluence spectrum per unit dose at energies below around 10 keV is consistent with the quasi-constant RBE of all megavoltage beams Nahum ; this suggests that MCM has a role to play in investigating how cellular radiosensitivity varies with radiation quality.
Her PhD research focused on Monte Carlo studies of dosimetric and microdosimetric properties of low energy photon sources.
- Medical physics.
- Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics | K. Bethge | Springer!
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Reniers has been working most of her career both as a researcher and as a clinical medical physicist. Consequently, her research interests cover not only brachytherapy, which has always stayed her main topic, but also research problems that where identified from her clinical tasks such as the evaluation of a Monte Carlo algorithm for electron planning or the dose accumulation from different fractions in brachytherapy.
She has authored more than 50 peer-reviewed journal publications and book chapters. This audit is based on the use of alanine electron paramagnetic detector and Gafchromic films. Since her appointment in Hasselt University she is also working on experimental microdosimetry. Francesc Salvat is the leader of the group at the University of Barcelona that develops and maintains the general-purpose electron-photon transport code PENELOPE an acronym for PENetration and Energy LOss of Positrons and Electrons , which has found a wide variety of applications in radiation metrology, dosimetry, radiotherapy, electron microscopy, x-ray source design, etc.
The first version of this program was released in , and since then the group has progressively improved the physics interaction models and the numerical sampling algorithms. Salvat has specialized in the development of theoretical models for the interactions of radiation with matter, and on the production of reference databases calculated from these models.
After decades of development and practice, the physics interaction models implemented in electron-photon Monte Carlo codes have become quite homogeneous, at least those referring to electromagnetic interactions. For energies lower than about 1 GeV, the tendency is to use either numerical databases of calculated differential cross sections DCSs or analytical models with parameters determined empirically. Photon interactions are frequently modeled by using total cross sections from the Evaluated Photon Data Library, which is frequently complemented with approximate angular distributions, electron shell Compton profiles, empirical electron binding energies, etc.
The description of inelastic interactions of charged particles with atoms is the main dissimilarity between the various codes; a consistent simulation scheme requires modeling the response of individual electron shells to account for the correlation between inelastic collisions and x-ray and Auger-electron emission.
The process of bremsstrahlung emission is relevant only for electrons and positrons; it is usually described by means of the extensive tabulations by Seltzer and Berger. With the most elaborate databases available, simulations of photons, electrons, and positrons are expected to meet essentially all practical needs for energies higher than about 1 keV; proton simulations are expected to be reliable for energies higher than about 1 MeV.
In complement, she is very active in developing multi-scale simulation techniques, from patients to cells to subcellular length scales, and applying these to investigate novel treatment approaches and understand measurements of cellular radiation response. Monte Carlo MC simulations are ubiquitous in medical applications for modelling radiation transport and energy deposition across length scales from patients to subcellular structures to nanodevices. With growing interest in, e. This presentation will focus on departures from traditional trajectory MC simulations of electron transport.
We will consider the validity of trajectory MC simulations of electron transport in the context of quantum theory, and, on the basis of general arguments, describe the potential for quantum effects to emerge at sub-1 keV kinetic energies. As a full quantum theoretic treatment of electron transport in condensed biological media is too complex to be feasible at present, calculations within a simplified model consisting of a plane wave electron incident on a cluster of point scatterers representing a water droplet will be presented.
Ongoing research to develop more realistic models of low-energy electron transport in condensed media will be described. He holds a PhD in physics from the University of Salamanca where he was an Assistant Professor before moving to Valencia to occupy a researcher position in the Theoretical Physics department.
His research focus has always been linked to computation-intensive calculation techniques. In the beginning of his scientific career he worked in developing numerical methods to approach the few- and many-body problems in hadronic physics. Nowadays, his main research interests are Monte Carlo simulations in the field of medical physics and its clinical applications. The evaluation of the absorbed dose deposited on a patient following a pre-ordained clinical plan has undergone a renaissance during the last decade.
The combined role played by increasingly powerful computational architectures together with new refined algorithms allows the clinical user to reach an accuracy only dreamed of during the last decades. Among the different radiation modalities, it is brachytherapy the one that has evolved more drastically in the last few years. Monte Carlo MC calculations, an advance dose calculation algorithm itself, have been used since for the evaluation of absorbed dose in clinical brachytherapy by means of the TG formalism.
Such formalism makes use of state-of-the-art MC simulations to obtain the absorbed dose deposited by the brachytherapy sources.
Medical Applications at CERN and the ENLIGHT Network
However, in order to be used in clinical practice, such dose kernels are pre-obtained assuming that the patient is made of water and immersed in an infinite volume of water. Therefore, effects like interseed attenuation, tissue heterogeneities, patient geometry or applicator materials are not explicitly considered when creating a clinical plan.
This implies that the role played by MC simulations until few years ago was restricted to the development and validation of new source models and applicator designs. TG goes one-step further, defining MC as the gold standard to which any new dose calculation algorithms should be compared and commissioned. Applying the methods of physics to biological and biomedical problems is an extremely diverse and richly rewarding area of scientific inquiry. Research within the Department involves many size scales, ranging from single proteins and molecular motors, to cells and extracellular matrices, to coordinated tissues, to whole organisms.
As physicists, we make unique contributions to biology and medicine by employing mathematical modeling and by reducing complex biological systems to their fundamental components.