Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian , Spanish, Kashmiri , Bosnian , Bengali , Malay , Indonesian, Punjabi , Assamese , Sindhi and Hausa , some languages in parts of Africa.
Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic ; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic , the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz ; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Lingua franca disambiguation. Main article: List of lingua francas. Regions where English is a majority native language. Regions where English is official but not a majority native language. Languages portal Linguistics portal. Retrieved 18 June Retrieved 20 March Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. Oxford University Press, July Peter L. Patrick — Week 11, Autumn term.
Teacher Finder. Retrieved 29 April Europa web portal. Archived from the original PDF on 15 November Retrieved 8 August Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies. Retrieved 8 June Hindustani is the lingua franca of both India and Pakistan By the time of British colonialism, Hindustani was the lingua franca of all of northern India and what is today Pakistan Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 12 March Euro-English assessing variety status.
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James Brooke , the first White Rajah. West Kalimantan is a province of Indonesia.
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It is one of five Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its capital city is Pontianak. Danau Sentarum National Park is a wetland of international importance located in the north of the province. At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java, west of Sulawesi, and east of Sumatra. Mount Kinabalu in Malaysia, the highest summit of the island. The critically endangered Bornean orangutan , a great ape endemic to Borneo. Logging road in East Kalimantan , Indonesia.
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Philip II of Spain. Tabon Caves are the site of one of the oldest human remains found in the Philippines: Tabon Man. The Kris or Kalis , sacred swords used by uncolonized Filipinos, that were wielded as standard weapons. An old oil painting on the inside of a wooden chest, circa , depicting Intramuros , a walled city that was built over the burnt ruins of Bruneian controlled Maynila, center of the Spanish colony.
Esperanto is the most widely spoken constructed international auxiliary language.
It was created in the late 19th century by L. Zamenhof, a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist. In , he published a book detailing the language, Unua Libro, under the pseudonym Dr. The first Esperanto book by L. Zamenhof published in in the Russian language. Esperanto books at the World Esperanto Congress , Rotterdam Hungarian astronaut Bertalan Farkas , the first Esperantist in space. The Cross of Mathilde , a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen — , who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque.
The figure of Christ is slightly later.
Probably made in Cologne or Essen , the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree , enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gem s. A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna Italy , bodyguards, and courtiers. Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. Portrait of a Young Woman c. View of Florence , birthplace of the Renaissance. Battle of Nicopolis in Painting from The Baptism of Constantine painted by Raphael 's pupils —, fresco , Vatican City, Apostolic Palace ; Eusebius of Caesarea records that Constantine delayed receiving baptism until shortly before his death.
Follis with Maurice in consular uniform. The Franks were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Aristocratic Frankish burial items from the Merovingian period. A 19th century depiction of different Franks AD — Detail of the Tabula Peutingeriana , showing Francia at the top.
A 6th-7th century necklace of glass and ceramic beads with a central amethyst bead. Similar necklaces have been found in the graves of Frankish women in the Rhineland. A segment of the ruins of Hadrian's Wall in northern England. Citizen of Roman Egypt Fayum mummy portrait. The Nike of Samothrace is considered one of the greatest masterpieces of Hellenistic art. Hellenistic period. Dionysus sculpture from the Ancient Art Collection at Yale. Philip V , "the darling of Hellas", wearing the royal diadem. The Colossus of Rhodes , one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Urdu —or, more precisely, Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
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It is the official national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. A multilingual New Delhi railway station board. Allama Muhammad Iqbal , the national poet of Pakistan. Badshahi Mosque , Lahore. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan — , whose vision formed the basis of Pakistan. In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria.
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French medal commemorating the war in Cilicia. Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Islamic calligraphy written by a Malay Muslim in Malaysia.
The calligrapher is making a rough draft. In Bahrain , Arabic is largely used in educational settings. The Malay Peninsula is a peninsula in Southeast Asia. The land mass runs approximately north-south and, at its terminus, is the southernmost point of the Asian mainland. Potential distribution over the Mediterranean Basin of the olive tree—one of the best biological indicators of the Mediterranean Region.
Challenges for Internationalization. S S Sonja Schricker Author.
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Add to cart. Internet usage over time Since its introduction over two decades ago, the Internet has seen a steady increase in users. Conclusion Comparing the developments of the Internet usage and data from the TOEFL test shows that the expansion of the Internet has little to no measurable effect on how proficient the people are at speaking English as foreign language. The Asahi Shimbun  Cf. Rakuten, Inc.