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Below are some of the key federal protections offered to employees. In addition, the FLSA assures that non-exempt workers receive time-and-a-half for any overtime they perform. The law offers special protections for minors as well. For non-agricultural positions, it limits the number of hours that children under the age of 16 can work. Additionally, the FLSA prohibits businesses from hiring those under 18 for certain high-risk jobs. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of went a long way toward minimizing dangers in the American workplace.

The legislation created a number of specific safety provisions, including industry-specific guidelines for construction, maritime and agricultural jobs. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has the primary responsibility for enforcing the law, although state agencies may also have a role in implementing certain provisions.


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While the protections affect most employees, self-employed individuals and those working on small family farms are among those exempted from the law. When it was first passed in , the Affordable Care Act promised to make health insurance a right for workers at most medium- and large-sized businesses.

Discrimination and Harassment at Your Job

President Franklin D. Employers and employees each contribute an amount worth 6. However, self-employed individuals bear the full cost of the tax, kicking in Even though each state has its own unemployment insurance agency, jobless benefits are actually offered through a joint federal-state program. States manage payments to the unemployed, but have to meet certain federal guidelines in terms of how they do so. To qualify for payments, individuals must have been unemployed for reasons outside their control — for example a layoff or firing — and meet state-specific requirements.

File a charge through the closest EEOC field office. Many state and local governments have their own anti-discrimination laws. These laws may offer extra protections beyond federal laws.


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  • Enter your zip code or choose from the list to find your nearest EEOC field office. Many state laws have more protections for nursing mothers than federal law requires. State labor offices enforce these laws. If you're a victim of job discrimination or harassment, you can file a lawsuit. If the discrimination violates federal law, you must first file a charge with the EEOC. This doesn't apply to cases of unequal pay between men and women. In either case, look for an attorney who specializes in employment law. You can check with:. National Employment Lawyers Association.

    The Americans with Disabilities Act ADA — prohibiting discrimination against workers with disabilities and mandating reasonable accommodations. Sex including sexual orientation and gender identity. These protections apply regardless of any contrary state or local laws. Harassment is unwelcome conduct based on:. Sexual harassment may include:.

    EEOC laws protect employees and job applicants from retaliation. Local, state, or federal government agencies and private employers may perform background checks when they hire an employee. If you are looking for information on arrest records, contact the appropriate law enforcement agency. This unpaid leave is guaranteed by law and is available to workers at companies with 50 or more employees.

    FMLA fact sheets can help you understand your rights and coverage. Employers with FMLA eligible employees have specific rights and responsibilities under the law. If you are an employer with concerns about false FMLA leave, contact the Wage and Hour Division with any questions about FMLA compliance and seek the advice of your company's legal and human resources departments.

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    USA: Employment & Labour Law 12222

    A labor union or trade union is an organization of workers which bargains with employers on behalf of its members. The purpose of a labor union is to negotiate labor contracts. Elected leaders of labor unions negotiate specific items of employment including:. Sometimes, these agreements affect non-union workers as well. Laws may prohibit obstructing others from conducting lawful business; outlaw obstructive pickets allow court orders to restrict picketing locations or behaving in particular ways shouting abuse, for example.

    The basic feature of labour law in almost every country is that the rights and obligations of the worker and the employer are mediated through a contract of employment between the two. This has been the case since the collapse of feudalism. Many contract terms and conditions are covered by legislation or common law. In the US for example, the majority of state laws allow for employment to be "at will" , meaning the employer can terminate an employee from a position for any reason, so long as the reason is not explicitly prohibited, [e] and, conversely, an employee may quit at any time, for any reason or for no reason , and is not required to give notice.

    One example of employment terms in many countries [40] is the duty to provide written particulars of employment with the essentialia negotii Latin for "essential terms" to an employee. This aims to allow the employee to know concretely what to expect and what is expected. It covers items including compensation , holiday and illness rights , notice in the event of dismissal and job description. The contract is subject to various legal provisions. An employer may not legally offer a contract that pays the worker less than a minimum wage.

    An employee may not agree to a contract that allows an employer to dismiss them for illegal reasons. Many jurisdictions define the minimum amount that a worker can be paid per hour.

    Labour law - Wikipedia

    Each country sets its own minimum wage laws and regulations, and while a majority of industrialized countries has a minimum wage, many developing countries do not. Minimum wages are regulated and stipulated in some countries that lack explicit laws. In Sweden minimum wages are negotiated between the labour market parties unions and employer organizations through collective agreements that also cover non-union workers at workplaces with collective agreements.

    At workplaces without collective agreements there exist no minimum wages. Non-organized employers can sign substitute agreements directly with trade unions but far from all do. The Swedish case illustrates that in countries without statutory regulation will part of the labour market do not have regulated minimum wages, as self-regulation only applies to workplaces and employees covered by collective agreements in Sweden about 90 per cent of employees.

    National minimum wage laws were first introduced in the United States in , [43] Brazil in [44] India in , [45] France in [46] and in the United Kingdom in The living wage is higher than the minimum wage and is designed that a full-time worker would be able to support themselves and a small family at that wage. The maximum number of hours worked per day or other time interval are set by law in many countries. Such laws also control whether workers who work longer hours must be paid additional compensation.

    Before the Industrial Revolution, the workday varied between 11 and 14 hours. With the growth of industrialism and the introduction of machinery, longer hours became far more common, reaching as high as 16 hours per day. The eight-hour movement led to the first law on the length of a working day, passed in in England. It limited miners to 12 hours and children to 8 hours. The hour day was established in , and shorter hours with the same pay were gradually accepted thereafter.

    The Factory Act was the first labour law in the UK. Germany was the next European country to pass labour laws; Chancellor Otto von Bismarck 's main goal was to undermine the Social Democratic Party of Germany. In , Bismarck instituted a variety of anti-socialist measures, but despite this, socialists continued gaining seats in the Reichstag. To appease the working class, he enacted a variety of paternalistic social reforms, which became the first type of social security. In the Health Insurance Act was passed, which entitled workers to health insurance; the worker paid two-thirds and the employer one-third of the premiums.

    Accident insurance was provided in , while old age pensions and disability insurance followed in Other laws restricted the employment of women and children. These efforts, however, were not entirely successful; the working class largely remained unreconciled with Bismarck's conservative government. In France, the first labour law was voted in It limited under-age miners' hours.

    In the Third Republic labour law was first effectively enforced, in particular after Waldeck-Rousseau law legalising trade unions. With the Matignon Accords , the Popular Front —38 enacted the laws mandating 12 days each year of paid vacations for workers and the law limiting the standard workweek to 40 hours. Other labour laws involve safety concerning workers.

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    The earliest English factory law was passed in and dealt with the safety and health of child textile workers. Such laws prohibited discrimination against employees as morally unacceptable and illegal, in particular racial discrimination or gender discrimination. Convention no. Thus, on April 28, , after the unofficial repeal of the French First Employment Contract , the Longjumeau Essonne conseil des prud'hommes labour law court judged the New Employment Contract contrary to international law and therefore "illegitimate" and "without any juridical value".

    The court considered that the two-years period of "fire at will" without any legal motive was "unreasonable", and contrary to convention. Child labour was not seen as a problem throughout most of history, only disputed with the beginning of universal schooling and the concepts of labourers' and children's rights. Use of child labour was commonplace, often in factories.

    In England and Scotland in , about two-thirds of persons working in water-powered textile factories were children. Children work as guides for tourists , sometimes combined with bringing in business for shops and restaurants where they may also work. Other children do jobs such as assembling boxes or polishing shoes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.