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You can filter on reading intentions from the list , as well as view them within your profile. Setting up reading intentions help you organise your course reading. It makes it easy to scan through your lists and keep track of progress. Here's an example of what they look like:. Your reading intentions are also stored in your profile for future reference.

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To set a reading intention, click through to any list item, and look for the panel on the left hand side:. Contact us. Academic writing: a handbook for international students. Library availability.

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Buy from Blackwell's. These investment booms appear irrational, because in 8 fact few railways were much more profitable to the investor than other forms of 9 40 enterprise, most yielded quite modest profits and many none at all: in the 1 average interest on capital sunk in the British railways was a mere 3. Two periods of especially feverish growth were —7 and —7. It is hard to understand the reason for this intense activity, since railways were not particularly profitable investments and some produced no return at all. Hobsbawm, 45 b There were only a few dozen miles of railways in , including the Liverpool to Manchester line.

But by there were over 4, miles and over 23, by Because most yielded quite modest profits and many none at all these investment booms appear irrational. In fact few railways were much more profitable to the investor than other forms of enterprise. British technology and capital were responsible for much of this growth, yet the returns on the investment were hardly any better than comparable business opportunities. Hobsbawm, 45 e The dramatic growth of railways between and was largely achieved using British technology.

However, it has been claimed that much of this development was irrational because few railways were much more profitable to the investor than other forms of enterprise; most yielded quite modest profits and many none at all. Look on the 8 website to find out. It may raise some issues that you want to discuss with 9 colleagues or your teachers.

Academic Writing

A plan can then be prepared, which should ensure the question is answered fully, while preventing time being wasted. Planning is necessary with all academic writing, but clearly there are important differences between planning in exams, when time is short, and for coursework, when preparatory reading is required. However, in both cases the process of planning should include these three steps: a Analyse the title wording and decide what is required. What are the economic and social forces that have driven this process?

Should there be? Are there any drawbacks to early language learning? You must keep to this limit, although deviations of 3 5 per cent more or less are generally acceptable.

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However, at the planning 4 stage you need to consider what proportion of the essay to allocate to each 5EEE part of the question. Moreover, it prevents you from writing an unbalanced answer, in which part of the question is not fully dealt with. Essays in exams do not have a word limit, but it is equally important to plan them in similar terms, e. I Identify the key words in the following titles and decide what percentage of the main body to give to each part.

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How can harmful impacts be reduced or avoided? Illustrate your answer with examples. Suggest possible strategies for more effective anti-malaria campaigns. Care at this stage will save wasted effort later. The more detail you include in your outline, the easier the writing process will be. Note that for coursework it is usually better to write the main body first, then the introduction and finally the conclusion. Therefore you may prefer to outline just the main body at this stage. There is no fixed pattern for an outline; different methods appeal to different students.

This unit explains and practises 3 this process, which also involves skills developed in Units 1. Add to the list below. Study the text below key points underlined and the notes in the box. What do you notice about the language of the notes? A hundred years ago news was exclusively provided by newspapers. There was no other way of supplying the latest information on politics, crime, finance or sport to the millions of people who bought and read newspapers, sometimes twice a day.

Today the situation is very different. The same news is also available on television, radio and the internet, and because of the nature of these media, can be more up-to-date than in print. For young people especially, the internet has become the natural source of news and comment. This development means that in many countries newspaper circulation is falling, and a loss of readers also means a fall in advertising, which is the main income for most papers.

Consequently, in both Britain and the USA newspapers are closing every week. But when a local newspaper goes out of business an important part of the community is lost. It allows debate on local issues, as well as providing a noticeboard for events such as weddings and society meetings. All newspapers are concerned by these developments, and many have tried to find methods of increasing their sales. One approach is to focus on magazine-type articles rather than news, another is to give free gifts such as DVDs, while others have developed their own websites to provide continuous news coverage.

However, as so much is now freely available online to anyone with a web browser, none of these have had a significant impact on the steady decline of paid-for newspapers. Source: New Business Monthly, May , p. Then choose a 9 title for the paragraph. Volkswagen, for instance, has 1 produced a car with raised seats and more interior space to 2 appeal to their tastes.

In Japan, with its ageing population, 3 4 companies have more experience of selling to the retired, and 5 have been successful with unusual products such as a robotic 6 seal, which serves as a pet substitute for the lonely. There are, 7 however, certain difficulties in selling to this market.


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Therefore the key points that you select must relate to that topic. Currently over two-thirds of Americans are believed to be either overweight or obese, but recently it has been discovered that the situation may have stabilised. The rate of increase appears to have virtually stopped, so that on average women and children weigh no more now than they did ten years ago. This trend may have important consequences for the health care system: according to a recent study Finkelstein et al. This is due to the increased risks of medical conditions such as diabetes, to which should be added extra costs connected with illness and resulting absence from work.

Until recently it was assumed that the long-term trend would continue so that ultimately all Americans would become overweight; Wang had estimated that this would happen by Obviously, such an assumption implies steadily rising medical insurance costs. If the new trend continues there are clear benefits for public health and the associated finances, but medical researchers still struggle to understand the basic causes of the problem, which is that obesity in America is now three times greater than fifty years ago.

There is substantial evidence that obesity is linked to social class: those with irregular and badly paid employment are more likely to eat what is convenient and tasty rather than have the time or energy to organise a healthy diet. The number of people in this category may have risen in recent years. Another possibility is that food now is cheaper relative to income, while free time is more valuable, so continued. In addition, washing machines and other devices mean that fewer 4 calories are used in doing domestic chores around the house.

An Introduction to Academic Writing

Although valid, 5 these factors apply in many other countries where the same growth in obesity 6 has not been seen. Certainly about a third of the 2 population attempt a slimming programme every year, and although many give EEE3 4 up it appears that the number of people who succeed may be rising. The quantity of notes you make depends 6 on your task: you may only need a few points, or a lot of detail. Do not write sentences. You need to make up your 8 own abbreviations for your subject area.

But do not abbreviate too 9 much, or you may find your notes hard to understand in the future! Source: Herapath, T. Now it appears that this habit helps to improve the ability to remember and therefore to learn. Researchers have known for some time that new memories are stored short-term in an area of the brain called the hippocampus, but are then transferred to the pre-frontal cortex for continued. They now believe that this transfer process occurs 2 3 during a kind of sleep called stage 2 non-REM sleep. After this has 4 occurred the brain is better able to take in new information, and having a sleep 5 of about minutes after lunch seems to be an effective way to permit this.

Half the volunteers were put in a group which 1 stayed awake all day, while the others were encouraged to sleep for an hour and a 2 EEE3 half after the first session.

It was found that in the second lesson the second group 4 were better at remembering what they had learnt, which indicates that the siesta 5 had helped to refresh their short-term memories. Berlin: Freihaus, p. Effective paraphrasing is a key academic skill needed to avoid the risk of plagiarism: it demonstrates your understanding of a source. This unit focuses on techniques for paraphrasing as part of the note-making and summarising process. For example, the following sentence: There has been much debate about the reasons for the industrial revolution happening in eighteenth-century Britain, rather than in France or Germany.

By the early eighteenth century high wages 4 5EEE and cheap energy were both features of the British economy. At that time, no other country 30 had this particular combination of expensive labour and 1 abundant fuel. This encouraged the 7 development of mechanical inventions based on steam power, 8 which enabled bosses to save money by mechanising 9 production Allen, This encouraged the adoption of steam power to mechanise production, thus saving on wages and increasing profitability.

By the eighteenth century cheap energy and high wages were both aspects of the British economy. As a result, the mechanisation of industry through inventions such as the steam engine and mechanical spinning was profitable because employers were able to save money on employees by spending on coal. At that time, Britain was the only country with significant deposits of coal. Do not attempt to paraphrase every word, since some have no true synonym, e.

It began in France and Germany, but took 1 2 off in the United States.